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When the UK joined the Common Market in1974, the country’s restaurants had a total of 26 Michelin stars, the industrystandard restaurant rating, in Britain. In 2019 there are 163, including fiverestaurants with three stars – the highest honour awarded. Is this acoincidence or has membership of the European Union enabled the development ofthe UK’s vibrant contemporary food scene?

英国1974年加入欧洲共同市场的时候,该国餐厅总共拥有26颗米其林星星(餐厅评级的产业标准)。到2019年,该数字变成了163颗,包括五家拥有3星的餐厅,这是能授予的最高荣誉了。这只是个巧合,还是欧盟成员国的身份使英国充满活力的当代饮食盛况成为可能?



(图解:英国对世界美食的贡献是:薯条)

Despite what John Cleese might think, foodculture in the UK is booming – chefs are becoming superstars and prime-time TV slots are full ofcookery programmes, which are exported all over the world. What the quality ofrestaurants and the global profiles of its top chefs suggests about the UK in2019 is that it is not only a nation of foodies – but that the country hasbecome immersed into the food and drink culture of Europe.

?#36824;躂ohn Cleese(约翰·克里斯)怎么想,英国的饮食文化正在繁荣发展,大厨们成了超级明星,?#24179;?#26102;段的电视节目充斥着出口到全世界的烹饪节目。餐厅的品质加上其全球瞩目的顶级大厨表明的是:2019年的英国不仅是一个吃货之国,而且这个国家已经渐渐沉浸于欧洲的饮食文化了。

European food and ingredients have becomestaple food choices for the British. The use of ingredients such as garlic,peppers, avocados, Parmesan cheese and all those other European ingredientsthat are now taken for granted are relatively new and were still rare in the1990s. When I was growing up in rural Devon in the 1970s, olive oil was onlyreally readily available in chemists as a cure for earache – now it is found inmost food cupboards. And wine drinking has permeated through all socialclasses.

欧洲的食品和原料已经成为了英国人主要的食品选择。今天我们用起来理所当然的原料相对来说还是新鲜事物,诸如大蒜、胡椒、牛油果、帕玛森?#34923;?#20035;至其他所有来自欧洲的原料,而它们在90年代仍属罕见。我成长在德文郡乡村的70年代,想要轻松得到橄榄油只能去药剂师那里,在那边是用来治耳痛的,而如今,大部分食品柜中都能发现它。而喝红酒已经渗透进了所有社会阶层。



Spanish delicatessen in London’s Borough Market. Paolo Paradiso via Shutterstock

(图解:伦敦博罗市场中的西班牙熟食店。)

So if Britain’s food is embedded inEuropean culture, what will the impact of Brexit have on the restaurantindustry in the UK? In order to answer this it’s necessary to identify howBritain’s ties to the EU have directly impacted upon UK restaurants.

那么,如果欧洲文化在英国食物中是根深蒂固的,英国脱欧对英国餐饮业的冲击会怎样呢?为了回答这个问题,有必要鉴识出英国和欧盟的联系是如何直接影响英国餐馆的。

Free movement of chefs

厨师的自由流动



What this demonstrates is that EU workersare key to the continued success of the UK restaurant industry. They are oftenportrayed as a source of cheap labour, but in fact are skilled, well-educatedindividuals who make a positive contribution to the sector. Even though many ofthe workers are highly skilled, wages remain low – so any move to place anincome threshold of £30,000 to earn a visa will exclude the majority of EUhospitality workers. But without the labour provided by EU immigrants it isdifficult to see how the sector can continue to thrive.

这些数字证明:欧盟劳工是英国餐饮业?#20013;?#25104;功的关键。他们往往被描绘为廉价劳动力来源,但事实上却是技能娴熟、受过良?#23186;?#32946;的个体,对该行业作出了积极的贡献。哪怕很多劳工拥有高技能,薪水却一直很低,因此,任何将拿到签证的收入门槛设定为3万欧元的举措,都将把大多数欧盟?#39057;?#19994;劳工排除在外。但要是没有欧盟移民提供的劳动力,很难看到该行业要如何继续兴旺。

Free movement of ingredients

原料的自由移动

Great chefs rely on great ingredients, andseamless trade ensures that food arrives in Britain in the freshest possible state.Food items such as strawberries, peppers or chillies are delivered tosupermarkets and restaurants throughout the year. Britain imports a huge amountof fresh produce from the EU – in fact, in terms of food security, through alack of investment in farming over the past two or three decades, the UK is notand cannot be self-sufficient.

伟大的厨师依靠伟大的原料,而无缝贸易?#32321;?#20102;食物能以尽可能最新鲜的状态运达英国。诸如草莓、胡椒或辣椒等食物品类在一整年中?#23478;?#20132;付给超市和餐厅。英国从欧盟进口大量的生鲜食品,事实上,由于食品安全方面的条款,在过去二三十年中的投资是不足的,英国没有也做不到自给自足。

The EU ensures that the UK can both importand export foodstuffs in an efficient manner, as there are no delays caused bycustom checks or embargoes on products. Unless the UK remains part of thecustoms union, it is difficult to see how the cuisine to which they have becomeaccustomed to can continue to enter the supply chain without disruption.

欧盟?#32321;?#33521;国能够有效地进口和出口食品,因为对产品的通关检查或禁运造成的延误是不存在的。除非英国仍是关税同盟的一部分,不然,看不出他们已经习惯的菜?#28909;綰文?#22815;在不受阻碍的情况?#24405;?#32493;进入供应链。



Back to cheap sausages?

倒退回廉价香肠?

The vibrant food culture in the UK dependson the EU to provide innovation, influence, skilled labour and products. This isreflected all the way from the shelves of Aldi and Lidl to the five UKthree-star Michelin restaurants. If I am right in believing food and cuisine tobe an expression of culture, then Britons are European. As the writer andsocial commentator Robin Leach stated before his death in 2018:

英国充满活力的饮食文化要依靠欧盟来提供创新、影响力、熟练劳动力和产品。这一点从Aldi和Lidl的货架?#25509;?#22269;的五家米其林三星餐厅,都能充?#22336;从?#20986;来。如果我相信食物?#22270;?#32948;是文化的一种表达是正确的,那么英国人就是欧洲人。正如作家和社会评论家罗宾·里奇2018年在去世前所说的那样:

(译注:Aldi和Lidl为两?#19994;?#22269;连锁超市品牌)

Whoever would have guessed that in the landof cheap sausages and mashed potatoes there could be such a change which wouldactually bring the French from Paris every weekend to invade Britain en masseto eat great food and drink great wine.

有谁能想到,在这片廉价香肠和土豆泥的土地上会发生这样的变化,真能在每个周末?#24433;?#40654;带来法国人入侵英国,同吃很棒的食物,共饮上好的红酒。[/copy]

Perhaps Brexit will have a positive impacton British food culture and protect the future and integrity of the greatBritish chip rather than being replaced by the insidious pommes frite. It willbe interesting to see in the coming decade whether the number ofMichelin-starred restaurants increases further. I suspect it won’t.

也许英国脱欧会对英国饮食文化产生积极影响,并能保护伟大的英国薯条的未来和完整性,而不是被潜伏着的法式薯条取代。在接下来的十年中,看看米其林星级餐厅的数量是否会进一步增加会是很有趣的事。而?#19968;?#30097;不会。