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Our economy currently relies heavily on unsustainable industrial principles of mass scale, never-ending growth and throwaway consumerism. The transition to a sustainable economy, then, requires a shift in how we think about production.

我们的经济目前严重依赖于不可持续的大规模工业原则、永无止境的增长和一次性消费主义。因此,向可持续经济的转型,需要我们改变对生产的看法。

In contrast to industrial production, craft production prioritises local production, human skill and excellence. Although craft
principles were cast aside as industries were modernised, a revival is taking place. Examples of craft revival are visible in many sectors, ranging from butchering to textile production, but one of the most illustrative examples comes from the booming craft beer sector.

与工业生产相比,手工生产优先考虑本地生产、人类技能和卓越表现。尽管随着工业的现代化,手工原则被抛诸脑后,但一场复兴正在上演。从屠宰到纺织生产,许多行业都出现了手工复兴的例子,但最具说服力的例子之一来自蓬勃发展的精酿啤酒行业。



Yet demand does not change in isolation. It requires producers that are willing and able to follow alternative production principles and educate consumers. A recent study of the Dutch beer brewing industry found that the increasing success of the craft movement was in large part driven by a growing and eclectic group of beer enthusiasts that devoted themselves to becoming brew masters, regenerated craft brewing techniques and revived a declining industry in the process. The craft beer revival shows that a transition away from unsustainable, industrial production is possible and desirable.

然而,需求并没有孤立地改变。它要求生产商愿意并且能够遵循替代生产原则并教育消费者。最近对?#34923;?#21860;酒酿造业的一项研究发现,精酿运动日益成功,很大程度?#40092;?#30001;越来越多的、折衷的啤酒爱好者推动的,他们致力于成为酿酒大师、再生手工酿造?#38469;酰?#24182;在这一过程中复兴了一个衰落的行业。
精酿啤酒的复兴表明,从不可持续的工业生产转型是可能的,也是可取的。

But these craft change-makers face challenges. The main issue for any incipient craft movement is to shake off the idea that craft is an outdated mode of production, strictly adhering to historic methods and recipes.

但这些手工变革者面临着挑战。任何早期手工运动的主要问题,则?#21069;?#33073;手工是一?#27490;?#26102;生产方式、严格遵循历史方法和配方的观念。

The craft beer revolution, for example, was not possible in places such as Germany and Belgium, which have maintained historic beer brewing traditions. There, breweries tend to strictly follow narrow interpretations of what traditional craft production means and have expectations about how and where craft skill should be applied, such as following age-old community specific recipes. This conception of “craft” constrains innovation – and indeed both countries lack the rich innovative craft brewing scene that has developed elsewhere.

例如,精酿啤酒革命在德国和比利时等地是不可能的,因为这些国家一直保持着历史悠久的啤酒酿造传?#22330;?#22312;那里,酿酒厂往往严格遵循对传统手工生产含义的狭隘解释,并对手工技能的应用方式和应用地点抱有期望,比如遵循古老的社区特定配方。这种“手工”的概念限制了创新——事实上,两国都缺乏在其他地方发展起来的丰富的创新精酿场景。

Successful craft movements, on the other hand, smartly harness the power of localism, authenticity and nostalgia without getting stuck in the past. This attitude was clearly expressed by one Dutch brewer:
I have always been bothered by the false romanticism that beer lovers like to hear and the ordinary reality of beer brewing. Beer brewing is a craft. You write your own recipes. There is no such thing as old recipes. All beers that were brewed 100 years ago are disgusting.

另一方面,成功的手工精酿运动巧妙地利用了地方主义、真实性和怀旧的力量,而不会陷入过去。一位?#34923;?#37247;酒商明确表达了这种态度:
我一直被啤酒爱好者?#19981;?#21548;的虚假浪漫主义和啤酒酿造的普通现实所困扰。啤酒酿造是一门手艺。你要自己写配方,没?#20852;?#35859;的老配方。所有100年前酿造的啤酒其实都很恶心。

This is an extreme opinion: generally traditions are navigated more respectfully. Through craft, brewers stress their traditional, independent background while experimenting and making entirely new beers. It’s important to open up the definition of craft and to find a productive balance between tradition and innovation.

这是一个极端的观点:一般?#27492;擔?#20256;统更受尊重。通过手工酿造,酿酒师强调他们的传统,独立的背景,同时试验和制造全新的啤酒。重新定义手工,在传统和创新之间?#19994;?#19968;个?#34892;?#30340;平衡点是很重要的。

Another challenge for the modern craft movement is the reality that any organisation can be bought. Although initially craft brewers were able to build a separate market for craft beer and resist the lure of big money, incumbent industrial brewers are now taking over successful craft breweries at increasing speed.

现代手工运动的另一个挑战是,任何组织都可以被?#31456;頡?#23613;管最初手工酿酒厂能?#26179;?#31934;酿啤酒建立一个独立的市场,并抵御巨额资金的诱惑,但现在,现代工业酿酒厂正以越来越快的速度接管成功的手工酿酒厂。

In the Netherlands, one of the most successful craft breweries, De Molen in Bodegraven, has recently been acquired by Bavaria, one of the four large incumbent brewers. Bavaria also owns the Dutch abbey brewery, De Koningshoeven, known for its authentic Trappist beer, while Heineken acquired the oldest still running brewery, Brand, in the early 2000s. This signals a new era of consolidation and raises questions about the long-term resilience of the craft movement.

在?#34923;跡?#26368;成功的手工酿酒厂之一,博德格拉文的德莫伦最近被四大现有酿酒商之一的宝华丽?#23637;骸?#23453;华丽还拥有?#34923;糀bbey酿酒厂De Koningshoeven,以正宗的特拉普斯特(Trappist)啤酒闻名,而喜力啤酒公司在2000年初?#23637;?#20102;最古老的仍在运营的酿酒厂Brand。这标志着一个行业整合的新时代,并引发了人们对手工行业长期韧性的质疑。



In short, an updated notion of craftsmanship provides the architecture needed for a sustainable, innovative economy. Entrepreneurs of the future are those that redefine our relationship with materials. They are the craftspeople who make beer out of stale bread, leather from leftover fruit or who fashion garments from fish skin.
Whether these craft principles will shape the new economy largely depends on modern corporations truly infusing them into their organisations and going beyond craft-washing. Corporate success is historically based on choices that contradict craft principles, which means that corporations are often at a loss when it comes to meaningfully enacting any of these ideas.

简而言之,手工的更新概念为可持续、创新的经济提供了所需的架构。未来的企业家是那些重新定义我们与材料关系的人。他们是用不新鲜的面包做啤酒的工匠,用剩下的水果做皮革,或者用鱼皮做服装。
这些手工原则能否塑造新经济,在很大程度?#20808;?#20915;于现代企业是否真正将它们注入自己的组织,并超越手工“清洗?#34180;4永?#21490;上看,企业的成功是建立在与手工原则相矛盾的选择之上的,这意味着当涉及到有意义地实施这些想法时,企业往往会不知所措。

This likely means that a transition has to be sustained from the bottom: in the microbreweries, urban gardens, maker spaces and repair cafes. The people in these spaces are not just making. They are creating the mentality needed for a sustainable economy. We need more makers, not managers.

这可能意味着转型必须从底层开始:在微型啤酒厂、城市花园、创客空间和维修咖啡馆。这些地方的人们不仅仅是在制造。他们正在创造可持续经济所需的心态。我们需要更多的创造者,而不是管理者。